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Test of Early Reading Ability - Fourth Edition
by D. Kim Reid, Wayne P. Hresko & Donald D. Hammill
Ages: 4 - 8+ years
Testing Time: 30 minutes
Complete TERA-4 Kit Includes: Examiner’s Manual, 2 Picture Books (Form A and Form B), 2 packets of 25 Examiner Record Booklets (Form A and Form B), and Reader, all in a sturdy storage box.
The Test of Early Reading Ability - Fourth Edition (TERA-4) is a direct measure of reading ability in children ages 4-0 through 8-11. Rather than assessing children’s “readiness” for reading, the TERA-4 assesses their mastery of early-developing reading skills. The test has three subtests: Alphabet (measures knowledge of the alphabet and its uses), Conventions (measures knowledge of the conventions of print), and Meaning (measures comprehension of print). A composite, called the General Reading Index, represents overall reading ability.
Reliability: Extensive studies of test reliability (coefficient alpha, test-retest, immediate and delayed alternate forms, and interscorer) support the TERA-4’s use with individual students. Average coefficient alphas for the full normative sample range from .88 to .97 for subtests and is .98 for the composite.
Validity: Content-description validity was established through careful selection of items, controlled vocabulary, construct review by a panel of language experts, conventional item analysis, as well as analysis of the test floors, ceilings, and item gradients, and differential item functioning. Criterion-prediction validity was established by (a) correlating TERA-4 standard scores with commercially available measures of reading ability (i.e., ERA, TOSWRF-2, TOSCRF-2, and TOSREC), (b) comparing means and standard deviations between TERA-4 and criterion tests, and (c) computing sensitivity, specificity, and ROC/AUC statistic. Construct-identification validity was established by studying (a) the relationship of the TERA-4 standardised scores with age, academic achievement, spoken language, and intelligence; (b) the ability of the TERA-4’s standard scores to differentiate groups with known reading problems from those without such problems; and (c) the factorial fit of the subtests to the construct in the test model (i.e., reading). Floors, ceilings, and item gradient analyses for the TERA-4’s subtests and composite were conducted.